Chemokines are cytokines which attract certain supopulations of leukocytes. They constitute the family of 50 proteins of low molecular weight (8-12 kDa). They are divided into four groups: CXC, CC, CX3C, C. Chemokines acts via receptors C-R, CC-R, CXC-R, CX3C-R. About 20 receptors for chemokines are described so far. Many chemokines may bind to one receptor and one chemokine may target more than one receptor. Chemokines exert many physiological activities as well as can be involved in pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. The main role of chemokines is engagement into development of inflammatory reaction. Chemokines are engaged also in maturation and function of immunological system as well. Further they are engaged into pathogenesis of many other pathologies like myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, brain tumours. The increased expression of chemokines in the brain is induced by different stimulus as ischaemia, axonal damage, or presence of neurotoxic substances. Till now, many chemokines were investigated because of their participation in development of atheromatous plaque in carotid arteries of animal models and humans is increased as well. Expression of selected chemokines on atheromatous plaques from patients operated because of critical stenosis of internal carotid artery was described. Chemokines belonging to different classes (CCL2, CXCL1, CX3CL1, CCL5, CXCL1) with proven but not finally investigated participation in atherogenesis and its complications were analysed. Furthermore concentration of selected chemokines in peripheral blood and expression of some chemokines on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with and without restenosis was also published. Chemokines are engaged also in complications of atherosclerosis such as ischaemic stroke or myocardial infarction. The goal of this review was to highlight the role of various chemokines and their receptors in such conditions. Experimental data with knock-out genes or agonists of chemokine receptors give the hope to development of new therapies for brain ischaemia.